The middle ages or the dark ages of the ancient Europe is a historically very important period of time as it paved way to the renaissance period where many inventions and great discoveries were done. Architecture, during this period is equally prominent as it has special qualities that are unique to this specific period of time. The types of architecture that was found at this time of the period were religious buildings, military architecture and civic architecture. Styles of architecture can be named as pre-Romanesque, Romanesque and gothic. This period from 5th century to 15th century is considered a dark era as Christians went into war with the Muslims with the hope of regaining their Holy land. A series of such battles were fought that were named “crusades” and a lot of lives were lost due to plagues and the Black Death as well.
Speaking of the architecture during this period, the houses were built in small villages and people preferred to stay together as small groups than to live in their farm houses in their own lands, for safety purposes. House renovations were keen on using wood for construction of houses as plenty was available at that time. A change that can be seen in medieval architecture compared to the Roman architecture is that people used fireplaces and chimneys to heat their houses rather than having an open fire. Small windows were common during this time. They were made in such a way that it is difficult to see the interior of the house from outside but allowed those inside to see out. Only a very few had houses of their own except for the nobles. Most commoners lived in the houses of the rich as servants.
Straw, wattle and daub, clay and brick and wood are some materials used by new home builders of the medieval times. Apart from that, slate was used for the roofing of rich houses. Glass, metal and steel, lime mortar and stone was used to build other types of buildings such as cathedrals, halls, market squares, mills, churches and military buildings. Materials used during these times were of quality and were long lasting.
Religious buildings were given a lot of importance during this time as people were ruled and control by the church. All things were done in God’s name and people were afraid of the religious laws. Therefore, cathedrals and churches were made out of very expensive materials, huge statues and exquisite paintings to add glamour and grandeur. A lot of time was taken to finish the construction of such buildings, and as a result they were built under different stages.